An ordered sequence of phonological rule applications which convert the underlying phonological form of a lexical item into its surface phonetic form. The example below derives the surface form sɪŋɪŋ from an underlying form sɪnɡ+ɪnɡ.

  1. Underlying representation – sɪnɡ+ɪnɡ
  2. Assimilation – sɪŋɡ+ɪŋɡ (applies twice)
  3. Velar plosive deletion – sɪŋ+ɪŋ (applies twice)
  4. Output – sɪŋɪŋ